From this attachment, four separate flat, fan-shaped bundles diverge superolaterally and attach into the skin of the superior border of the eyebrow, superior and deep to the orbicularis occuli muscle. Whether this is due to a genuine difference among the specimens examined or merely represents a different focus between the two studies is unknown. The oral group of muscles consists of the orbicularis oris, buccinator, and various smaller muscles. As you can see, there are quite a lot of muscles which make up this group. The procerus muscle here on either side originates on the nasal bone and inserts onto the skin of the forehead. These are the auricular muscles.
The Anatomy of the Gorilla. Voluntary facial palsy with a pontine lesion. It is attached superficially into the skin of the lips. Isolated voluntary facial paresis due to pontine ischaemia. Among these facial expressions were the six, long-recognized basic emotions — happy, sad, fearful, angry, surprised and disgusted — but also 15 others, which were a combination of these basic feelings.
alberletbudapest.info - Muscles of Facial Expression and Taste (CN VII)
The simulation did not account for the larger impedances of subcutaneous tissue and skin, and therefore the authors note that these simulated values might be overestimates. The procerus is the most superior of the nasal muscles. The depressor septi muscle is a small muscle responsible for drawing the nose downward. This is the levator anguli oris. Is there functional significance to the present finding that there is strong consistent common drive to the muscles involved in smiling and not to those involved in the other expressions? Correlation between the discharges of motor units recorded from the same and from different finger muscles in man.
What this muscle does is it depresses the lower lip and the direction of the fibers means that it also moves it laterally as well. Table 2 Results from grand average correlograms. The strong common drive found for the smile might represent the fact that unlike the other facial expressions, smiling is often a voluntary action performed as a social requirement. No central peaks were present in either the contrived expression between frontalis and zygomaticus major or the contrived expression between the frontalis and orbicularis oculi. These muscles here, the nasalis which consists of the transverse part and the alar part is responsible for compressing and flaring the nostrils, the nares.